Acid Mine Drainage Treatment Case Study

Advanced Oxidation for High Strength Caustic Wastewater Case Study



Project Scope

A Northeast engineering firm was selected to clean up a former roofing tar manufacturing site in Queens, NY. Following extensive bench testing and a comprehensive pilot study, they selected a treatment program using a remediation contractor’s surfactant enhanced In-Situ Chemical Oxidation (ISCO) technology. Due to the extent of contamination and the significant quantities of surfactant, sodium persulfate, and sodium hydroxide required, equipment and field services were required to remediate the site.

The remedial design required high flows (5-20 gallons per minute) of chemicals to be injected site-wide on a daily basis. This required storage and management of bulk chemicals on-site, creating operational and financial challenges for the contractor. USP Technologies developed a Total Chemical Management program to safely and cost-effectively execute the project. Safety and environmental compliance were critical considerations due to the project location in a highly-populated area and proximity to waterways.


Based on project requirements, USP developed a Total Chemical Management program to meet project schedules and budget objectives:

Site Analysis and Hazards Review

USP engineering personnel worked closely with the remediation contractor to evaluate and plan for the specific hazards of the project site. Project duration occurred over the winter and required equipment and operational adaptation to extreme cold, rain, and snow. Operations within close proximity to the public and public water required strict site safety and environmental procedures.

Read More Download Case Study_Remediation_In-Situ-17-HR (pdf)[/vc_column_text][/vc_column][/vc_row]


Project Scope

A remediation contractor received a contract to clean up a former Manufactured Gas Plant (MGP) waste collection area. After thorough site characterization, bench testing and a pilot study, the consulting engineer and the remediation contractor selected the contractor’s patent-pending, surfactant-enhanced In-Situ Chemical Oxidation (ISCO) as the treatment technology. Due to the magnitude of the contamination and the widespread nature of the groundwater contamination, significant quantities of proprietary surfactant, iron chelate, sodium persulfate, and caustic, as well as equipment and field services were required to execute the site remediation.

The scope and structure of the project required that a high volume of multiple chemicals be mobilized quickly, which created a significant operational and cost challenge for the contractor. USP Technologies (USP) developed a Total Chemical Management program to accomplish the project efficiently and cost-effectively.


Based on the requirements for the project, USP developed a Total Chemical Management program to meet project schedules and budget objectives:

Site Analysis and Hazards Review

USP engineering personnel worked closely with the remediation contractor to evaluate and plan for the specific hazards of the project site. Project duration was multi-seasonal and required equipment and operational adaptation to extreme heat, extreme cold and rain.

Read More Download Case Study_New York ISCO Project-17-HR (pdf)


Project Scope

A large stainless steel and titanium pickling and finishing company had an issue with visible NOx fumes discharging out of one of their Midwest facilities. The plant had been tasked with the elimination of the fumes that were being generated from their various pickling baths they utilize. Visible threshold limits for NOx gas are generally 300-400 ppm depending on weather conditions. One of the facilities pickling baths is particularly aggressive and pickles a continuous titanium sheet on a coiler machine and has twice the residence time of other treatments in turn generating high levels of NOx. This can overwhelm the stack gas scrubber, causing NOx levels to rise well over 600 ppm with orange plumes emanating from the plant which are visible to the public.

The company’s environmental department reached out to USP Technologies (USP) for assistance. Initial discussions with USP confirmed successful implementation of their hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) technology to pickling baths can specifically inhibit NOx formation. USP had done prior work for stainless steel finishers and it was deemed the technology was transferrable to titanium processing.


On a mass basis, the H2O2 demand is a composite of that due to NO2 and NO, with the typical 50:50 ratio producing a theoretical demand of approximately 1.0 parts H2O2 per part NOx.

HNO2 + H2O2 → HNO3 + H2O Wt. ratio: 0.4

2NO + 3H2O2 2HNO3 + 2H2O Wt. ratio: 1.7

As shown in the reactions above, oxidation of NOx by H2O2 in-bath, produces nitric acid, thereby allowing recovery and reuse of a critical process reagent.


After initial testing, a full-scale demo was put in place for several months on the coiler bath at the plant. USP’s turn-key supply scope included 50 percent technical grade H2O2, a 3,000 gallon double walled bulk storage and an automated feed system. The turn-key system was solely maintained by USP. The program also included USP’s ChemWatch™ – advanced control system with remote telemetry, allowing tank monitoring for inventory and pump systems control and analysis.

The tank and pump system are located in the middle of the coil storage area. Since the delivery connection is outside of the building, the system employs a remote delivery alarm system. Results shown in Figure 1 demonstrates how after an initial high dose of H2O2 to treat the NOx that had already built up in the bath, the NOx emissions were effectively controlled with a steady feed rate of 5 gph.

Read More Download Case Study_Pickling Bath-17-HR (pdf)



Project Scope

A gulf coast refinery was experiencing unacceptable hydrogen sulfide (H2S) releases into occupied work areas in the Coker unit during cutting & quenching operations. Refinery Coker units are used to process residual oil or ‘heavy ends’. A part of the coking process requires quenching the hot coke with water, resulting in latent hydrogen sulfide being transferred to the water stream and stripping into the vapor phase creating potential exposure risks to operations personnel. In order to protect worker s, hydrogen sulfides in the process water stream must be eliminated.

In late 2016, USP Technologies (USP), leaders in peroxygen-based technologies for industrial water and wastewater treatment applications, was contacted by the refinery in search of a viable solution for its H2S issues. USP recommended a full-service chemical treatment program which included 27% refinery grade hydrogen peroxide, chemical storage, a dosing equipment system, inventory analysis, logistics management, safety training and ongoing field and technical support.

Full-Service Hydrogen Peroxide Treatment Program

The refinery recycles coker quench water in a closed loop, where any chemical used for treatment cannot negatively impact the coking process. Under near neutral pH conditions, the theoretical weight ratio of H2O2:H2S is 1:1, and proceeds according to the following reaction:

H2O2 + H2S S0 + 2 H2O

Since the products of the above reaction are water and inactive elemental sulfur, the chemistry does not negatively impact the batch coking process.

  Read More Download Case Study_Refinery Coker Quenchwater-18-HR (pdf)[/vc_column_text][/vc_column][/vc_row]

Remediation of Pesticides and Petroleum Products | Total Chemical Management


Total Chemical Management, Specialized Equipment Design

US Peroxide was contracted to provide total chemical management including chemicals, logistics, field services, equipment mixing and storage systems as well as chemical management oversight for the remediation of pesticides and petroleum products at a site located in California. Due to significant dry chemical requirements as well as a large square footage application treatment area, this project included the need to design a novel way to spread supersack quantities of chemical in a controlled manner. The resulting system pictured uses a device at the end of the spreader to accomplish this task. Equipment requirements included three 3-ton capacity dry material spreaders, all terrain tractors and a 3-ton all-terrain forklift system to distribute dry chemicals. US Peroxide can supply a wide range of chemicals such as hydrogen peroxide, ferrous sulfate, sodium persulfate, sodium percarbonate, acids and others commonly used for ISCO or other remediation technologies. These chemicals are available in wet (drum, tote, bulk) or dry (bags or super sacks where applicable) form. USP works with remediation companies to develop a cost effective, logistically optimized, and reliable chemical management program based on project specific chemicals, quantities, usage rates and other project constraints.[/vc_column_text][/vc_column][/vc_row]

Rapid Response Project


Rapid Response for Environmental Treatment Challenges

USP Technologies is uniquely positioned to rapidly respond to your environmental treatment challenges. USP combines experienced applications and equipment field support with a large inventory of storage systems and pumping modules to respond quickly to time sensitive water and wastewater treatment situations. USP Technologies’ Rapid Response Program consists of timely and effective treatment options for customers. USP maintains equipment inventory and has access to many chemical terminals throughout North America that allows for quick response. USP can respond to customer needs with a combination of technical and applications support, safety and project reviews, equipment supply, installation and service as well as multiple chemical programs. These program elements have proven to be of great value to customers.[/vc_column_text][/vc_column][/vc_row]

Hydrogen Peroxide Turn-key Program Helps Refinery through Aeration Basin Maintenance Outage

[vc_row][vc_column][vc_column_text]US Peroxide’s 27% Hydrogen Peroxide Treatment Program offered the refinery several benefits:
  • US Peroxide’s turnkey supply scope provided a safe and cost effective solution for supply of supplemental dissolved oxygen to this large refinery during the maintenance outage.
  • The biological treatment system’s performance during the outage  convinced the refinery to maintain the hydrogen peroxide storage and dosing system on site to provide supplemental dissolved oxygen (DO) on as “as needed” basis during periods of high BOD/COD loading, upstream process upsets, and filamentous bulking episodes.
In the summer of 2010, a large refinery complex in the Northeast was a facing a 2-3 month maintenance outage on one of two aeration basins in their activated sludge wastewater treatment system. During the outage, all of the refinery wastewater would need to be routed through the one remaining aeration basin.  Since the refinery periodically had difficulty maintaining dissolved oxygen (DO) levels with both aeration basins in service, they needed a temporary (and non-capital) means to provide the biological treatment system with supplemental DO during the maintenance outage. Hydrogen peroxide has been used as a source of supplemental dissolved oxygen (DO) in activated sludge treatment systems for decades. In the aeration basin mixed liquor, H2O2 converts to DO according to the following reaction:

2  H2O2   →  O2  + 2 H2O

This decomposition to DO occurs very rapidly due to the catalytic effect of enzymes (i.e. catalase) present in all activated sludge mixed liquors, and thus provides an immediate source of DO to the biomass.  Since hydrogen peroxide is a liquid, and infinitely soluble in water, the amount of DO provided is not limited by mass transfer of oxygen from the gas phase to the liquid as is the case with mechanical aeration.  More information on this application is provided at this link: Supplemental Dissolved Oxygen. Read More Download Case Study_Refinery-Turnkey-Aeration-15-HR (pdf)[/vc_column_text][/vc_column][/vc_row]

Re-Refinery Used Oil | Sour Water Treated with Hydrogen Peroxide

[vc_row][vc_column][vc_column_text]In North America, approximately 1 billion gallons of used oil are collected annually from generators such as quick lubes, truck fleets, and manufacturers.  Several companies have begun the process of re-refining this hydrocarbon-rich waste product.  Re-refining allows the lubricating oil to be repeatedly re-used as a higher value product. Re-refining involves operations which will separate and remove contaminants in the used oil so that this oil becomes suitable for reuse. The re-refining process is much like that of a traditional refinery with similar waste treatment requirements.  Such was the case for a major used oil re-refinery facility in the mid-west.  They had a “sour water” treatment system that was not performing as designed, resulting in operational problems and safety concerns.  Sour water is hydrogen sulfide rich wastewater water that is generated from a variety of sources including hydrotreaters, reformers and hydrocrackers. Hydrogen peroxide has been shown to be a convenient, cost effective and environmentally friendly part of hydrogen sulfide gas scrubbing technologies.  Scrubbing of hydrogen sulfide using sodium hydroxide and hydrogen peroxide is a well-established technology. A typical scrubbing solution consists of dilute sodium hydroxide to which enough hydrogen peroxide is added to react with the hydrogen sulfide according to the equation:

4H2O2 + H2 H2SO4 + 4H2O

The above reaction predominates at pH > 9.2, and yields soluble sulfate as the reaction product. The stoichiometry calls for 4.25 lbs H2O2 per lb S 2 and it is not unusual for reaction efficiencies to approach 100%, provided that the hydrogen peroxide is added in a controlled fashion and the reaction medium is thoroughly mixed. Enough sodium hydroxide must be present to neutralize the sulfuric acid formed according to the equation:

2NaOH + H2SO4  Na2SO4 + 2H2O

This indicates that for each weight part of hydrogen sulfide, approximately 2½ weight parts of sodium hydroxide are needed. USP Technologies provides a full scope of supply (chemicals, equipment and services) to support emergency and ongoing applications for hydrogen peroxide and a range of water and wastewater treatment chemicals.[/vc_column_text][/vc_column][/vc_row]

USP Technologies

1375 Peachtree Street NE, Suite 300 N

Atlanta, GA 30309

Toll-free (877) 346-4262

Phone (404) 352-6070

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USP - Canada

3020 Gore Road

London, Ontario N5V 4T7

Toll-free (877) 346-4262

Phone (404) 352-6070

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